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Chartism

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Chartism was a movement for electoral reform in the 1830’s, 40’s and 50’s which campaigned for “Universal Suffrage” – defined then as voting rights for all men over 21. The name derived from the People’s Charter – a six-point plan for delivering effective Universal Suffrage drawn up in 1838. The movement was a reaction to the Reform Act of 1832, which had increased the percentage of eligible voters in Britain but had still left the majority of the working class disenfranchised. The movement organised several National Conventions (bodies of delegates representing the Chartists from around Britain), and delivered several National Petitions, with millions of signatures, to Parliament between 1839 and 1858, demanding that the People’s Charter be implemented. None of the Chartists’ demands were granted at the time, but all but one (for annual parliamentary elections) were granted in subsequent Reform Acts from 1867 onwards.

Matthew was involved in the first National Convention and National Petition of 1838-9. It appears he also became disillusioned following his initial support for the 1832 Reform Act. He was elected Delegate to the National Convention for Perthshire at a mass rally on 19th Oct 1838, and for Fifeshire at an even bigger rally on 22nd Dec 1838. While he did not speak at any of the public rallies (a retrospective published after his death describes him as a shy man), he published two eloquent and empassioned addresses to the men of Perthshire and Fifeshire, outlining the moral righteousness of the Chartist cause and proposing additional reforms that he would like to see implemented to improve the social fabric of Britain. He refused the stipend due to him as a Delegate, saying that it should instead be used to further the Chartist cause, and he sponsored a Mr David Sime to tour Perthshire and Fifeshire and lecture on “Political Economy”, in order to educate the general public on this issue.

In January 1839, Matthew travelled to London to join the National Convention. The first meeting of the Convention was held on 4th Feb, with 60 delegates present. Matthew is mentioned seconding a motion on 6th Feb. He wrote an open letter dated 1st March in which he described himself as the “secretary and convener” of the London-based National Convention (some fraction of the Convention having left London to agitate for Chartism in the country at large). He wrote optimistically about the plans to deliver the National Petition to Parliament. But within a month, in a dramatic volte face, he had resigned and returned home, claiming in his letter of resignation that the “intemperate language and ultra character of the major party of the Convention … is calculated … to bring about scenes of destruction and misery”. Most of the “middle-class” delegates of the Convention would follow suit, also believing that the “physical force” faction of the movement had won out over the “moral force” faction. Following this, under the leadership of Feargus O’Connor, the Chartists became more of a working class movement, occasionally willing to use violent measures to try and achieve its aims. There is no record of Matthew taking any further part in the movement.

 
“Radical ‘Demonstration.’”. Perthshire Advertiser, 25 October 1838, p.4 col.1 (pdf image)
A report of the “Radical Demonstration” in Perth on the 19th October 1838, at which Matthew was elected Perthshire’s delegate to the Chartist National Convention. “Mr D. Sime, teacher” is one of the speakers (he would soon be employed by Matthew to undertake a tour of the county to lecture on “Political Economy”). Matthew does not speak. The Perthshire Advertiser had anti-Chartist sentiments, and this is reflected in the negative way in which the meeting is reported. The report ends by commenting on “the bitter and tyrannical spirit prevalent among a large portion of the working classes, and the existence of a degree of ignorance altogether incompatible with the useful exercise, either to themselves or others, of the privileges they are now demanding.”

 
“Domestic Intelligence”. Fife Herald, 1 November 1838, p.1 col.6 (pdf image)
Another report of the “public meeting of the Radicals of Perthshire” in Perth on the 19th October 1838, at which Matthew was elected Perthshire’s delegate to the Chartist National Convention. The Fife Herald was a pro-Chartist newspaper, and the report notes that the Perthshire Chronicle and Perthshire Advertiser differed widely in their estimates of attendance and interest in the meeting. The full text of this report follows:

On Friday week, a public meeting of the Radicals of Perthshire took place on the North Inch, for the purpose of adopting the “National Petition” and the People’s Charter,” and for electing a delegate to the National Convention. Deputations were in attendance from Errol, Scone, Dunning, Auchterarder, Blairgowrie, Alyth, and other places. The different bodies composing the procession met on the South Inch, and marched to the hustings on the north, with banners having various mottoes, one of which was
“Tories hare enslaved us;
Whigs have deceived us,
Both have bereaved us
Of our just rights.”
In the front of the hustings two loaves were exhibited on a pole, each 9d. in price; the one, however, much larger than the other, and marked as the “Free Trade Loaf;” while its diminutive neighbour was designated “The Monopoly Loaf.” Mr William Taylor, lime merchant, was called to the chair, and the resolutions having been moved and seconded by various speakers, were unanimously adopted, and a committee appointed to carry them into effect. Patrick Matthew, Esq. of Gourdiehill, was elected delegate to the National Convention. The day on which the meeting was held being Little Dunning market, a great assemblage was expected; but respecting the numbers present, and the interest taken in the proceedings, the Perth papers differ materially. The Chronicle says, “There could not have been fewer than from nine to ten thousand present, and one spirit seemed animate the whole.” On the other hand, the Perthshire Advertiser says, at no time could there have been more than 2000 present, and that, with the exception of those persons immediately engaged the proceedings, very little interest was taken in them by others.

 
“Perthshire Radical Demonstration”. Birmingham Journal, 3 November 1838, p.2 col.2-3 (pdf image)
Another report of the “Radical Demonstration” in Perth on the 19th October 1838, at which Matthew was elected Perthshire’s delegate to the Chartist National Convention. This report is noteworthy for being in a non-local newspaper (the Chartist Birmingham Journal) and for providing summaries of the various speeches presented. The speech by Mr D. Sime is summarised as follows:

He urged the meeting to reflect on the grandeur and justice of their cause — their own cause — the cause of their children yet unborn; to nail their colours to the mast, and proclaim to their enemies, “Death or victory.” He did not mean by this to recommend recourse to physical force. The man who, in present circumstances, would talk of this, must be either a rogue or a fool. But if the enemies of the people attacked them, in striving to obtain their rights, they might be forced to resistance. Ha than urged the meeting to persevere in the cause in which they had embarked. Sir R. Peel’s advice to his party was, “Resister, Register, Register!” Mr. O’Connell’s was, “Agitate, Agitate, Agitate!’’ “I (said Mr. S.) would say, agitate, but persevere also. If you do not persevere for your rights, you are unworthy to enjoy them. Strike the blow for liberty! Let Britain once be free, and the blessing will spread over every land, placing society in that condition to which it is destined by that Being whose character is benevolence, and whose essence is love.”

 
“True Patriotism”. Fife Herald, 22 November 1838, p.2 col.3 (pdf image)
The pro-Chartist Fife Herald, quoting the Chronicle, approves of the “true patriotism” of Patrick Matthew in refusing the £200 stipend due to him as elected Delegate for Perthshire to the Chartist National Convention.

True Patriotism.— Instead of pocketing, as he might justly have done, the £200 agreed to be given him as Delegate for Perthshire to the National Convention, Patrick Matthew, Esq. of Gourdie Hill, with a generosity that does him the highest credit, has resolved to devote that sum towards forwarding objects of general utility. A man of purer public-spirit than Mr Matthew, Perthshire we believe could not furnish; and it will be long indeed ere the superiors of the paltry tools who delight in maligning him are found emulating the spirit of his noble example— Chronicle.

 
“Lecture on Civil Government and Political Economy”. Fife Herald, 29 November 1838, p.2 col.1 (pdf image)
A report on one of David Sime’s lectures, given as part of the lecture tour organised and paid for by Matthew.

LECTURE ON CIVIL GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL ECONOMY.– On Tuesday evening last, Mr D. Sime, from Perth, delivered a lecture on civil government and political economy, in which he pointed out the baneful effects of monopolies in repressing industry and promoting misery, and maintained that the only radical cure was Universal Suffrage. Notwithstanding that an anti-endowment meeting was held the same evening, the attendance was good, and the audience listened with great attention to the lecturer, who discussed the subject in a calm and dispassionate manner, free from that dogmatism and fierceness which characterise so many of the champions of Radicalism. He dealt with principles and with systems, stating that men, whether Tory, Whig, or Radical, when placed in irresponsible situations, are too apt to use the power they possess to forward their own selfish ends, or in giving play to the tyrannical passions of their nature – such is human nature. At the close of the lecture, which occupied two hours, votes of thanks were passed to Patrick Matthew Esq. of Gourdiehill, and Mr Sime, for which Mr Sime returned thanks, and remarked, that the best return they could make him was by their becoming members of societies for the purpose of carrying out the object of the lecture. Mr Sime is at present on a tour through this county, under the patronage of Mr Matthew, the Perthshire Convention delegate, for the purpose of disseminating Radical principles, and aiding the present movement for universal suffrage. We understand he was to address the people of St Andrews yesterday, and from thence was to go through the Coast Burghs.—A Correspondent.

 
“Radical Association”. Fife Herald, 6 December 1838, p.2 col.1 (pdf image)
A report of a “Radical Association” meeting, supporting Matthew’s name to be put forward as the National Convention delegate for Fifeshire. “Physical-force men” are repudiated. The meeting in Edinburgh on the 4th December, which aimed to assert the “moral force” intentions of the Scottish Chartists, is termed “The Battle of Calton Hill” by Alexander Wilson (1970) in The Chartist Movement in Scotland.

RADICAL ASSOCIATION.— Friday night last this Association held its monthly meeting, when various letters regarding Radical operations were read, among which was one from Mr Abram Duncan, soliciting their influence to get him returned to the Convention; but an offer had been likewise made by Mr Matthew of Gourdiehill to take this district under his care; and the Association instructed their delegates to signify, at a meeting of delegates to be held on the 8th instant to make arrangements for the demonstration on the 22d, that Mr Matthew would meet with their cordial support. A letter was likewise read, intimating that a meeting would be held in Edinburgh on the 4th instant, of delegates from various parts of Scotland, to take measures to counteract the efforts of “the physical-force men,” the objects of which meeting the Association cordially approved of, and desired their Secretary to write accordingly. Collectors were appointed for the National Rent.

 
“Great Radical Demonstration”. Fife Herald, 27 December 1838, p.4 col.1-5 (pdf image)
A report of a great Chartist demonstration at Kettle, Fife, on the 22nd December 1838, where Matthew is elected as delegate for Fifeshire to the Chartist National Convention. “There must have been from eight to ten thousand individuals”, the report states. “The greatest cheerfulness and good order prevailed from first to last, nor was there seen at the meeting any individual under the influence of ardent spirits, in fact no small part of them were decided teetotallers”. Several speeches are paraphrased. The last is by “Mr John Law, Ceres”, containing a description of Matthew’s excellent qualities to be delegate to the National Convention, also backed up by David Sime:

So oppressed are the people of this country, and so corrupt has the government become, that it is more than time that they should arise and emancipate themselves from the galling bondage in which they are held. The people are robbed and plundered at all hands. They have been cruelly robbed of their own house, dragged out of it, and sent adrift to perish with cold and hunger. But we will be robbed no longer, and, in order to regain our own house, and to foster the rising liberties of the people, we must have a temporary house of representatives, viz. a National Convention, which must be composed of tried and good man, chosen by the people. I am proud that I have such a man to propose for your adoption this day, a man that will do honour to your cause. I mean Patrick Matthew, Esq. of Gourdiehill, Perthshire. (Cheers.) He is a Radical of the real stamp, and has been so from his youth. He is the only landowner in Perthshire that has fearlessly stood by his principles at all times. He is a reformer in every sense of the word. His whole soul hates corruption, whether found in the moral or political world – he may be styled a great moral, civil, and political regenerator, for, let me tell you, he is an out-and-out teetotaller. (Here there was an almost universal cheering, which continued for sometime.) I like that response, it will strike terror to the hearts of your political enemies, for well do they know that a sober and intelligent people cannot be their slaves. Give over the use of intoxicating drugs, then you will have more money for the purchase of useful books, and more time to give to the cultivation of your mind. By so doing you will be better in health and in purse, and bear down with tenfold more power on the corruptions of the country. I have no more advice to give you, and I have done. Throw aside your little party differences, and unite heart and soul for the one object of universal suffrage. If you are not willing to throw your whole heart into the work, stand off, and we can do without you, you will only create dissension in the camp, and become more in love with partyism than with Radicalism. (Loud cheers.)

Mr Law’s motion having been seconded, the chairman asked if any person had any other gentlemen to propose as delegate, or if there was any objection to Mr Matthew. A person near the hustings called out, that they knew nothing about him, upon which Mr Sime again rose and gave an account of Mr Matthew’s public and private character, and his qualifications for the office for which he had been proposed, with which the multitude were highly pleased.

No other person having been nominated, Mr Matthew was declared duly elected amidst general cheering.

 
“Resolutions Adopted at Kettle”. Fife Herald, 27 December 1838, p.1 col.1 (pdf image)
A summary of the resolutions adopted at the great Chartist demonstration at Kettle, Fife, on the 22nd December 1838. The election of Patrick Matthew is point 6: “6th. That Cupar, with the surrounding Towns and Villages, join Perth in sending Patrick Matthew, Esq. Gourdie-Hill, to London, to support, the National Petition.”

 
“Disunion Among The Chartists”. Fife Herald, 10 January 1839, p.1 col.5 (pdf image)
While not directly to do with Matthew, this report reveals the divisions between the “physical force” and “moral force” Chartists, and also on the meagre turn-out to mass rallies organised at Newcastle and Bristol.

 
“Contemporary Opinions”. Coventry Standard, 18 January 1839, p.1 col.1 (pdf image)
Originally published in the Globe, this is a searing attack on the ideas contained in Matthew’s 2nd Address to the Men of Perthshire and Fifeshire:

“(From the Globe.)

Mr Patrick Matthew, “appointed to take charge of the universal suffrage petition from Fifeshire by the Fife demonstration meeting of the 22nd ult.,” has published a very edifying broadside, in the True Scotsman, of the benefits to be forthwith derived from obtaining the suffrage. This manifesto is by no means without sense or talent in many parts of it; and the perusal confirms the opinion we have often expressed, that is not from ignorance, in the ordinary sense of the word, that we apprehend a social revolution (i.e., a war of extermination between classes for at least one generation, and misery and demoralization diffused through several generations) as, humanly speaking, the certain result of the yielding ascendancy to the working classes. It is the wants and passions of these classes, rather than their minds, that are formidable. What flatters the latter, and undertakes to supply the former by force of law, will always carry them along with it by stronger than intellectual biasses. And once render the trade of demagogue lucrative,– once devolve the sovereignty on those of whom demagogues are the courtiers,– and measures of prescription and confiscation will soon follow – for the benefit of the Sovereign, as in other despotisms, and in all Radical revolutions, past or (as we believe) to come.

Mr Patrick Matthew proposes—

“That all the writings and mouldy parchments regarding land property tenure – mere instruments for lawyer-pillage – be made a bonfire of, and no evidence of title-right admitted but possession, living witnesses, and the register-book kept in fire-proof apartment in each county town.

“A Radical Reform in our army and navy; degrading punishments abolished; the rotten portion – the 12,000 half-pay officer pensionaries – lopt away; no pensions allowed but to the old or disabled men; and the whole united service brought to the utmost soundness and efficiency. A system to encourage and merit adopted, by promoting a considerable portion of the commissioned officers from the non-commissioned officers and warrant officers, and of the non-commissioned and warrant officers from the men by ballot-vote of the regiment or ship’s company, or at least that they should be put upon the roll for promotion by ballot-vote.”

The introduction of democratical processes into the service is well known to have thrown the French army and navy into a state of utter indiscipline during the first years of the Revolution. The system of terrorism in the interior, however, drove immense multitudes into the armies; tactics utterly regardless of the lives of the men supplied for a time the want of discipline; and military democracy was soon sobered back to subordination.

Mr Patrick Matthew further proposes–

“The abolition of the law of entail and primogeniture succession; and every parent obliged to divide the greater part of his property, say two-thirds or three-fourths, equally among his children. This, with a graduated property tax, would soon break down estates to a moderate size, advantageous to human enjoyment, and produce resident proprietors throughout all parts of the country, superintending the improvements of their estates, very much benefiting shopkeepers and tradesmen in provincial towns, and diffusing wealth and improving society throughout the country.”

The mixture of sense and nonsense, truth and extravagance, in the above extracts, we need not enlarge upon; but we give it as a curious sample.

 
“Mr Matthew’s (of Gourdie-Hill) Manefesto”. Perthshire Advertiser, 24 January 1839, p.3 col.3 (pdf image)
The same anti-Matthew excerpt from the Globe is given (see previous article), along with the following preamble:

MR MATTHEW’S (OF GOURDIE-HILL) MANEFESTO.
Mr Matthew, having been chosen to represent the “Men of Perthshire and Fifeshire,” or rather the “Chartists” in these counties, in the “National Convention” which, it is said, is about to assemble in London, lately issued an address to his constituents, in which he detailed, at great length, his opinions on public matters, and the changes he considered necessary in order to give all classes fair play. This document was so lengthy (it occupied nearly five columns! of our local Radical contemporary), that we confess we had not courage to undertake anything like a careful analysis of it. We have not now a copy of the address; but from the glance we gave at it at the time of its publication in the columns of our contemporary, our impression was, that, in many parts, it was sufficiently crude, more like the production of a closet-theorist, of one who knew little or nothing practically of the world, or the state of society in this country – than of a gentlemen possessing the shrewdness and experience which, we understood, characterized Mr Matthew. Many of the “changes” propounded by this gentleman looked to us perfectly absurd, and ridiculous; and others, good enough in themselves, so wholly impracticable for many, many years to come, that it would be a mere waste of energy to attempt to accomplish them at present. But we did not mean to discuss, particularly, the merits of Mr Matthews manifesto; but merely to call the attention of our readers the following brief commentary thereon, which we extract from a recent number of the Globe, and which, according to our thinking, contains a pretty accurate estimate of its character.—

 
“To the Men of Perthshire and Fifeshire”. Fife Herald, 24 January 1839, p.4 col.1-3 (pdf image)
Part One of Matthew’s 2nd Address to the Men of Perthshire and Fifeshire. For full text, see PMP > Other Works > Two Addresses (1939) > 2nd Address.

 
“To the Men of Perthshire and Fifeshire (Concluded from our last.)”. Fife Herald, 31 January 1839, p.4 col.1-3 (pdf image)
Part Two of Matthew’s 2nd Address to the Men of Perthshire and Fifeshire. For full text, see PMP > Other Works > Two Addresses (1939) > 2nd Address.

 
“Speech of Mr Ellice at Cupar”. Fife Herald, 7 February 1839, p.2 col.4 (pdf image)
While not directly to do with Matthew, this report reveals once again the contrasting inclinations of the Scottish Chartists, who were mostly advocates of “moral force” and peaceful protest, and the inclinations of the English Chartists under Feargus O’Connor who were more willing to adopt “physical force” to achieve their ends. In this report of a speech given by Mr Ellice, M.P. for Fifeshire, Ellice is pleased to note that the Chartists of Fife have declared themselves against the “physical force” faction promoted by Feargus O’Connor (the meetings organised by O’Connor in Edinburgh and Paisley are described by Alexander Wilson (1970) in The Chartist Movement in Scotland). Thus, Ellice agrees to campaign to allow the National Petition to be received by Parliament.

 
“Chartist Convention”. Sheffield Independent, 9 February 1839, p.5 col.1 (pdf image)
A report of the first meeting of the Chartist Convention, on the previous Monday (4th Feb). 60 delegates assembled. They discussed how to treat self-declared delegates who had arrived without Petition or Rent. The meetings on subsequent days are also reported. Matthew is mentioned in the report for Wednesday.

 
“Chartist Convention”. Fife Herald, 14 February 1839, p.2 col.4 (pdf image)
A report from the Chartist Convention in London. There are more details on the “missionaries” being sent to rural parts of England. Matthew is again briefly mentioned.

 
Matthew (1839-03-21): “National Convention”. Fife Herald, 21 March 1839
Matthew reports on the proceedings of the National Convention in London.

 
“Delegate Meeting”. Fife Herald, 4 April 1839, p.3 col.5 (pdf image)
A notice requesting members of the Fife Chartists to be present at a meeting in Kettle on Saturday 6 April, as Patrick Matthew will be present.

 
“National Convention”. Perthshire Advertiser, 4 April 1839, p.3 col.1 (pdf image)
A report of the resignation of Dr Wade, delegate from Nottingham, from the National Convention, due to the threat of the use of “violent measures” from “the labouring classes”. In an Editorial at the end, the Editors note that Matthew has returned from London last week, “having bid farewell to the concern”: “The Convention is evidently in the last throes of dissolution. The more respectable portion of the members have totally abandoned it. Mr Matthew, the delegate from this county, arrived here last week, having bid farewell to the concern. From the above paragraph, it appears adjournment for a week has taken place; but we suspect will turn out to be an adjournment sine die!

 
“The Chartists”. Perthshire Advertiser, 11 April 1839, p.3 col.1 (pdf image)
A report of a Chartist meeting at Perth, recording the very negative feelings that Matthew now felt towards the National Convention, which was now predominantly made up of “physical force men” who, “but for the leniency and forbearance of the Government”, might be locked up in Newgate prison.

THE CHARTISTS.— A meeting of Delegates, from the various Chartist Associations in Fifeshire and this County, was held in the Balchristie Meeting-house here, on Tuesday, for the purpose of hearing Mr Matthew, their representative to the “National Convention,” (but who has lately abandoned the post,) give an account of his stewardship. Mr Matthew, we understand, gave a very gloomy account of the prospects the Chartists — told them that the vast majority of the “Convention” were “physical force men;” and that their conduct and language had been such that, but for the leniency and forbearance of the Government — of the “base and tyrannical Whigs” — the whole members might, by this time, have been cooling their heels in Newgate. The meeting, we are informed, came to a resolution in favour of “moral force;” and requested Mr Matthew again to betake himself to his duties — a request which Mr Matthew, we scarcely think, will comply with, as, from all we have heard, we suppose he has had quite enough of the “Convention.”

 
Matthew (1839-04-12): “Letter of Resignation to William Lovett (Extract)”. 12 April 1839
In this extract from his resignation letter, Matthew sets out his reasons for resigning as Delegate to the National Convention.

 
“The Chartists”. Perthshire Advertiser, 18 April 1839, p.3 col.2 (pdf image)
A report confirming Matthew’s resignation from the National Convention. David Syme (the teacher (“dominie”) sponsored by Matthew to do a lecture tour on “Polical Economy”) is mooted as a possible replacement. The anti-Chartist Perthshire Advertiser considers that for the Chartists “the game is over”.

The Chartists.— Mr Matthew of Gourdiehill, the delegate elected by the Fifeshire and Perthshire Chartists to the “National Convention,” has formally resigned the post. Mr Matthew’s abandonment of the “Convention” has exceedingly dispirited the Chartists in this quarter. They are beginning to perceive that the game is over; but we hear they have, nevertheless, some intention of sending up “the dominie!” Where are the “funds” to come from? “The dominie (Syme) will not, like Mr Matthew, do the business without “fee or reward.”

 
“The Chartists” and “Auchterarder”. Fife Herald, 25 April 1839, p.2 col.5 (pdf image)
A report of Matthew’s resignation, copied from the Perthshire Advertiser (see previous article), and of a Chartist Meeting in Auchterarder rejecting physical force (copied from the Stirling Observer).

 
“To the Working Classes”. Northern Star, 21 September 1839, p.3 col.5 (pdf image)
By September 1839, the efforts of the first Chartist “National Convention” to effect political change, by delivering the “National Petition” with over 1 million signatories to the House of Commons in London, had failed. Feargus O’Connor, the founder of the Chartist Northern Star newspaper, had become the undisputed leader of the movement. Here, in this open letter addressed pointedly “To the Working Classes”, O’Connor presents his reasons for this failure. He lists three: (1) the betrayal of the middle-class representatives of the National Convention, who had undermined the Convention’s legitimacy by leaving; (2) the “almost insurmountable difficulties” in trying to overturn the vested interests of the wealthy ruling classes; and (3) financial difficulties in funding the activities of representatives. By this stage, even before the deadly violence of the pro-Chartist Newport Rising of 3-4 November 1839, the calls by some for “physical force” had put off the more middle-class advocates of “moral force” (i.e. peaceful protest), splintering the movement, but O’Connor does not mention this issue. O’Connor proposes setting up a new Convention, with a smaller number of delegates and, by implication, focussed on a purely working class representation. It is clear that O’Connor attributes chief blame for the failure of the first Convention to the first of his three reasons. After listing the middle-class representatives who had resigned or absented themselves (Matthew is one), O’Connor at first resists accusation: “In a calm and dispassionate review, it is not my business to offer a harsh word, which would only tend to weaken argument; and therefore I shall not attribute any motive to those who resigned”. But by the end, his feelings are clear: “In conclusion, my friends, you will bear in mind that we have been beaten for the present by treason, not by the enemy, and that it is child’s play to put our thumbs in our mouth just when we should be rallying our forces, and redoubling our exertions”. A postscript at the end is even clearer: “P.S.—Never mind the humbug of the middle classes joining you. I tell you they never will till necessity compels them. They would rather face the devil than face Universal Suffrage.”

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